Saturday, April 29, 2017

Ruling of the Week 2017.9: Chronically Late

Had I been thinking and available to do it, I would have posted this on April 20. Sorry I am late.

Grab some snacks, because we are about to discuss HQ H282163 (Apr. 13, 2017), which addresses whether a storage case with multiple adjustable compartments and a combination lock closure is prohibited merchandise.

Why would that be the case? It might help to know that the cases go by the name "Stashlogix" and come in three modes: Go-Stash, Eco-Stash and Pro-Stash. In addition to the combination lock, other Stashlogix features include a "stash journal" to "help keep track of all those crazy names," a UV-proof jar that can be re-labeled, odor absorbing packs, and a labeling marker. The products are designed "based on the principles of functionality, security, and discretion." The company advertises that the cases are used to store valuable private items such as fire-arms and addictive pharmaceuticals.

Here is a picture of the "Pro-Stash" case:


As you might have figured out, the question is whether the Stashlogix cases are drug paraphernalia under 21 USC 863. If so, they are prohibited merchandise.

The law defined drug paraphernalia as follows:
any equipment, product, or material of any kind which is primarily intended or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, concealing, producing, processing, preparing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing into the human body a controlled substance, possession of which is unlawful under this subchapter. It includes items primarily intended or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing marijuana . . . .

The statute contains many examples of drug paraphernalia including variations on pipes, miniature spoons, wired cigarette papers, and cocaine freebase kits. None of the exemplars in the statute are carrying or storage cases. So why is this a problem?

In the ruling, Customs and Border Protection noted that similar UV-proof jars are sold with labels clearly indicating their connection to marijuana and related products. One example is labeled, in part, "THC," which is a reference to "tetrahydrocannabinol," the principal active ingredient in weed. Another UV-proof jar is decorated with a marijuana leaf. 

Customs also noted that one reseller of the bags, a site called 420Science.com, advertises them with other "stash bags" from a company called "Dime Bag," which is clever. Also, a site called The Stoner Mom wrote a favorable review of the Stashlogix cases. According to the review, the cases are "perfect for today's stoner parent."

[As I sit here, it occurs to me that I have been surfing headshops and stoner sites for an hour. For the next six months the internet will probably be serving me adds for all sorts of stonerware.]

The question is whether any of that matters. The Stashlogix bags are discrete. They do not have the stereotypical stoner markings such as pot leaf designs, variations on the flag of Jamaica, and pictures of Shaggy from Scooby-Doo.


Plus, jars are jars. They can be used for anything. If I were a chef, this might be a perfectly good way to protect, organize, transport and store [see what I did there?] spices and other valuable but non-perishable ingredients. Could it also be a travel bag? The jars might be useful for cosmetics and other preparations.

On the other hand, we should not blind ourselves to the reality of these bags. After all, they are called "Stashlogix" for a reason. According to Urban Dictionary, my favorite lexicographical resource, "stash" can refer to a "secret collection such as of drugs, pornography, etc." Also, according to Stoner Mom, the Stash Journals included with the bags are pre-printed with guides for rating the form and strain including categories for edible, oil, and powder, which (I am told) are forms in which weed and weed products can be consumed.

Getting back to the law, the statute also identifies several relevant factors. Those include:
  1. instructions, oral or written, provided with the item concerning its use;
  2. descriptive materials accompanying the item which explain or depict its use;
  3. national and local advertising concerning its use;
  4. the manner in which the item is displayed for sale;
  5. whether the owner, or anyone in control of the item, is a legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community, such as a licensed distributor or dealer of tobacco products;
  6. direct or circumstantial evidence of the ratio of sales of the item(s) to the total sales of the business enterprise;
  7. the existence and scope of legitimate uses of the item in the community; and
  8. expert testimony concerning its use.

Given all of this, the legal question is whether the Stashlogix cases are "primarily intended for use" and "designed for use" in, among other things, concealing a controlled substance. These are to be considered objectively and with respect to the likely use of the item, not a specific or individual use. My example of the well-organized chef, does not help if the most likely use is by the Stoner Mom and her stoner ilk.

So, what is the evidence of intended use and design?

First, the odor absorbing packets are described as providing "discretion." According to Customs and Border Protection, the intent and likely use of these packets is to conceal the odor of weed.

What about the UV-proof jars? Initially, I thought the intent was to preserve the contents by blocking UV light; like putting beer in an amber or green bottle. Apparently, my weed knowledge is limited. According to Customs, the specific type of glass involved here has the capacity to absorb UV light and also X-rays. That means the jars are designed and intended to help conceal, rather than preserve, the contents.

Marketing for the bags did not help. As mentioned, they are sold along side other bags that are more explicitly for the storage of pot by retailers expressly catering to stoners. It is hard to say whether that marketing should be imputed to Stashlogix. The fact that Stoner Mom and other bloggers find the bag useful is not really direct evidence of Stashlogix's design and intent.

On the other hand, Stashlogix does not seem to have gone out of its way to break that association. Stashlogix does not explicitly say it makes and imports stash bags for stoners. It says it provides locking cases for people looking to discretely store private items. Those private items could be prescription medications, weapons, or anything else. A post on its website includes this picture:

Note that the bag seems to contain a wallet, some sunscreen, and other items that do not look to be weed-related. A locking travel bag seems to be very useful at the waterpark or when forced into close quarters with people you don't know particularly well. It could also be very useful at home if someone required powerful medications that should not be left accessible to kids.

Customs did not buy any of that. It seems that the Stoner Mom and 420 Science made this case much harder than it might have been had Stashlogix been able to control its branding. The "Stash" part of its name does not help either. If I were giving the company legal advice, I would drop the stash journals too.

Stashlogix is now in a tough spot. State laws have greatly expanded the ability of Americans to legally access weed. But, it remains subject to federal law. The law prohibits the importation of drug paraphernalia. You might think that Stashlogix could start sourcing its product in the U.S. to avoid the customs issues. Unfortunately, the law also prohibits the use of interstate commerce to transport drug paraphernalia. I hope these guys have a factory in Colorado because if this ruling sticks, that might be the best place to make and also sell the bags.

One interesting aside is that this ruling does not involve customs duties. It goes to whether Stashlogix can do business as an importer. That might be irreparable harm. This might be one of the vary rare cases in which 28 USC 1581(h) would give the U.S. Court of International Trade jurisdiction to review a CBP ruling without the importer having to make an entry and protest the liquidation. 



No comments: